Type 2 Diabetes

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Type 2 Diabetes

Treatments

Non-drug

Prescription Drugs

Actos (Pioglitazone) Farxiga (Dapagliflozin) Glucophage (Metformin) Glucophage XR (Metformin) Janumet (Sitagliptin/metformin) Janumet XR (Sitagliptin/metformin extended-release) Januvia (Sitagliptin) Jardiance (Empagliflozin) Nesina (Alogliptin) Oseni (Alogliptin/pioglitazone) Tradjenta (Linagliptin) Trulicity (Dulaglutide) Victoza (Liraglutide) Xigduo XR (Dapagliflozin/metformin extended-release)

Over-the-counter Drugs

What Leading Medical Organizations Recommend When Treating Type 2 Diabetes

WHAT TO TRY FIRST

The 2015 American Diabetes Association guidelines and the British National Health Service recommend that everyone with diabetes start with:

  • Exercise - Moderately-hard aerobic exercise for at least 2 1/2 hours a week (don't miss more than 2 days in a row) and resistance training at least 2 times a week.
  • Healthy eating - Meet with nutritionist to plan healthy, enjoyable meals with consistent carb intake.
  • Weight loss if overweight or obese - Reduced calorie diet to lose 5 to 10% of body weight.
  • Stop smoking

If diet and exercise alone have not controlled blood sugar enough, metformin is the first-choice drug.

WHAT ELSE TO TRY

The 2015 American Diabetes Association guidelines recommends adding another diabetes medication If metformin at the highest dose does not control blood sugar enough or causes too many side effect.  They recommend adding:  another pill (sulfonylurea such as glipizide, thiazolidinedione (pioglitazone), DPP-4 inhibitor such as sitagliptin, SGLT2 inhibitor such as canaglifozin), GLP-1 receptor agonist injections such as exenatide or long-acting insulin.  The British National Health Service recommends a sulfonylurea as the first-choice medication to add.

While the American Diabetes Association says that people who cannot take metformin can start with any diabetes medications, the British National Health Service suggest starting with a sulfonylurea.

SOURCE(S)

American Diabetes Association. Clinical Practice Recommendations 2015. Published January 2015.
National Institute for Health Care Excellence (NICE). Type 2 diabetes: The management of type 2 diabetes. Published May 2009.